DISEASE DEFINITIONS (SOME) 2017-04-18T12:33:06+00:00



  • Neurodegenerative disease – a condition that results in the progressive loss or death of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
  • Epilepsy. According to the International League Against Epilepsy, this is what a person is considered to have epilepsy if they meet any of the following conditions: At least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring greater than 24 hours apart; One unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years; Diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome. Epilepsy is considered to be resolved for individuals who had an age-dependent epilepsy [1, 2]the last 10 years, with no seizure medicines for the last 5 years.
  • Dravet syndrome is a form of intractable childhood epilepsy, most often associated with the mutation in voltage-gated sodium channels (Dravet Syndrome Foundation).
  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in patients over the age of 65 that manifests as a progressive degenerative disorder in the central nervous system. AD is predominantly associated with a progressive decline in cognitive abilities that first manifests as word finding difficulties and impairments in short-term memory. In addition to gross cortical atrophy, the pathological hallmarks used to definitively identify Alzheimer’s disease include the presence of insoluble extracellular amyloid protein and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. (Alzheimer’s Association).
  • Repeated brain injury and dementia. Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) range from mild (concussions) to severe (penetrating) physical damage.. Repeated brain injuries are most common amongst athletes and soldiers[3],{Raymont, 2011 #525}[4]. Dementias related to head injuries are becoming an important health concern. It is equally as relevant to the civilian population, like contact sport athletes. Multiple head injuries are known to substantially increase the risk for development of AD, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and associated dementias[5-8]
  • Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurological neurodegenerative disease with a delayed onset that develops in response to repeated mild traumatic brain injury or concussion and has signatures of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Migraine is a neurological condition that causes from mild to severe head pain, nausea and vomiting, and disturbances in vision and or speech. It can last for hours or days and cab be mentally and physically debilitating.
  • Neuroinflammation is the protective immune system response to physical damage or viral infection of the brain. Neuroinflammation is common in neurodegenerative diseases (Chen, 2016) and occurs in response to traumatic brain injury.
  • Neuroprotection is a mechanism by which the brain can protect itself from an ongoing insult, like repeated concussions. Neuroprotective mechanisms in the brain prevent the loss of nerve cells (neurons) and their connections, called synapses.
  • Inflammation – the succession of beneficial changes which occurs within a living tissue when the tissue is injured and the immune system is engaged. Redness, heat, swelling, pain are all signs of inflammation. Prostaglandins are key mediators of the inflammatory response and they are formed when arachidonic acid is released by the cells.
  • Edema or swelling results from increased passage of fluid from dilated and permeable blood vessels into the surrounding tissues, infiltration of cells into the damaged area, and, in prolonged inflammatory responses, deposition of connective tissue.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, which can cause cartilage and bone damage, chronic pain, as well as disability.
  • Gout is a chronic disease of deposition of monosodium urate crystals, which form in the presence of increased urate concentrations. This causes pain and inflammation in joints.
  • Fibromyalgia is a widespread pain in muscles and soft tissue and is associated with fatigue, sleep problems, and mood changes.
  • Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s disease can stem from combination of genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses.


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