DISEASE DEFINITIONS (SOME)

/DISEASE DEFINITIONS (SOME)
DISEASE DEFINITIONS (SOME) 2017-04-18T12:33:06+00:00

SOME DISEASE DEFINITIONS

 

  • Neurodegenerative disease – a condition that results in the progressive loss or death of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
  • Epilepsy. According to the International League Against Epilepsy, this is what a person is considered to have epilepsy if they meet any of the following conditions: At least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring greater than 24 hours apart; One unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years; Diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome. Epilepsy is considered to be resolved for individuals who had an age-dependent epilepsy [1, 2]the last 10 years, with no seizure medicines for the last 5 years.
  • Dravet syndrome is a form of intractable childhood epilepsy, most often associated with the mutation in voltage-gated sodium channels (Dravet Syndrome Foundation).
  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in patients over the age of 65 that manifests as a progressive degenerative disorder in the central nervous system. AD is predominantly associated with a progressive decline in cognitive abilities that first manifests as word finding difficulties and impairments in short-term memory. In addition to gross cortical atrophy, the pathological hallmarks used to definitively identify Alzheimer’s disease include the presence of insoluble extracellular amyloid protein and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. (Alzheimer’s Association).
  • Repeated brain injury and dementia. Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) range from mild (concussions) to severe (penetrating) physical damage.. Repeated brain injuries are most common amongst athletes and soldiers[3],{Raymont, 2011 #525}[4]. Dementias related to head injuries are becoming an important health concern. It is equally as relevant to the civilian population, like contact sport athletes. Multiple head injuries are known to substantially increase the risk for development of AD, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and associated dementias[5-8]
  • Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurological neurodegenerative disease with a delayed onset that develops in response to repeated mild traumatic brain injury or concussion and has signatures of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Migraine is a neurological condition that causes from mild to severe head pain, nausea and vomiting, and disturbances in vision and or speech. It can last for hours or days and cab be mentally and physically debilitating.
  • Neuroinflammation is the protective immune system response to physical damage or viral infection of the brain. Neuroinflammation is common in neurodegenerative diseases (Chen, 2016) and occurs in response to traumatic brain injury.
  • Neuroprotection is a mechanism by which the brain can protect itself from an ongoing insult, like repeated concussions. Neuroprotective mechanisms in the brain prevent the loss of nerve cells (neurons) and their connections, called synapses.
  • Inflammation – the succession of beneficial changes which occurs within a living tissue when the tissue is injured and the immune system is engaged. Redness, heat, swelling, pain are all signs of inflammation. Prostaglandins are key mediators of the inflammatory response and they are formed when arachidonic acid is released by the cells.
  • Edema or swelling results from increased passage of fluid from dilated and permeable blood vessels into the surrounding tissues, infiltration of cells into the damaged area, and, in prolonged inflammatory responses, deposition of connective tissue.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, which can cause cartilage and bone damage, chronic pain, as well as disability.
  • Gout is a chronic disease of deposition of monosodium urate crystals, which form in the presence of increased urate concentrations. This causes pain and inflammation in joints.
  • Fibromyalgia is a widespread pain in muscles and soft tissue and is associated with fatigue, sleep problems, and mood changes.
  • Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s disease can stem from combination of genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses.

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Raymont, V., et al., “Studying injured minds” – the Vietnam head injury study and 40 years of brain injury research. Front Neurol, 2011. 2: p. 15.

Griffin, G.D., The injured brain: TBI, mTBI, the immune system, and infection: connecting the dots. Mil Med, 2011. 176(4): p. 364-8.

Plassman, B.L., et al., Documented head injury in early adulthood and risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Neurology, 2000. 55(8): p. 1158-66.

Nemetz, P.N., et al., Traumatic brain injury and time to onset of Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol, 1999. 149(1): p. 32-40.

Mortimer, J.A., et al., Head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. Int J Epidemiol, 1991. 20 Suppl 2: p. S28-35.

Fleminger, S., et al., Head injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease: the evidence 10 years on; a partial replication. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2003. 74(7): p. 857-62.

Devinsky, O., B.J. Whalley, and V. Di Marzo, Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics, 2015. 12(4): p. 689-91.

Friedman, D. and O. Devinsky, Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy. N Engl J Med, 2016. 374(1): p. 94-5.

Geffrey, A.L., et al., Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia, 2015. 56(8): p. 1246-51.

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Monory, K., et al., The endocannabinoid system controls key epileptogenic circuits in the hippocampus. Neuron, 2006. 51(4): p. 455-66.

Oliveira, C.C., et al., Anticonvulsant activity of beta-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Epilepsy Behav, 2016. 56: p. 26-31.

Tzadok, M., et al., CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience. Seizure, 2016. 35: p. 41-44.

Ahmed, A., et al., Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2015. 97(6): p. 597-606.

Dey, A., et al., Natural products against Alzheimer’s disease: Pharmaco-therapeutics and biotechnological interventions. Biotechnol Adv, 2016.

Hardy, J., The Discovery of Alzheimer causing Mutations in the APP Gene and the Formulation of the “Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis”. FEBS J, 2017.

McKee, A.C., M.L. Alosco, and B.R. Huber, Repetitive Head Impacts and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Neurosurg Clin N Am, 2016. 27(4): p. 529-35.

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Lynch, M.E. and F. Campbell, Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2011. 72(5): p. 735-44.

Malfait, A.M., et al., The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2000. 97(17): p. 9561-6.

Dalbeth, N., T.R. Merriman, and L.K. Stamp, Gout. Lancet, 2016. 388(10055): p. 2039-2052.

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